Sunday, May 24, 2020
Do you find it surprising that reindeer, which spend much of their time standing in snow, dont get cold feet? Or that dolphins, whose thin flippers are gliding constantly through cool water, still manage to pursue very active lifestyles? A special circulatory adaptation known as countercurrent heat exchange enables both of these animals to maintain the appropriate body temperature in their extremities, and this is only one of the many clever adaptations mammals have evolved over the last hundred million years to help them to deal with variable temperatures. Mammals Are Endothermic All mammals are endothermicÃ¢â¬âthat is, they maintain and regulate their own body temperature, no matter the external conditions. (Cold-blooded vertebrates, like snakes and turtles, are ectothermic.) Living in widespread environments around the world, mammals face daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperatures and someÃ¢â¬âfor example, those indigenous to harsh arctic or tropical habitatsÃ¢â¬âhave to deal with extreme cold or heat. To maintain their correct internal body temperature, mammals must have a way to produce and conserve body heat in colder temperatures, as well as dissipate excess body heat in warmer temperatures. The mechanisms mammals have for producing heat include cellular metabolism, circulatory adaptations,Ã and plain, old-fashioned shivering. Cellular metabolism is the chemical process that constantly occurs within cells, by which organic molecules are broken down and harvested for their internal energy; this process releases heat and warms the body. Circulatory adaptations, such as the countercurrent heat exchange mentioned above, transfer heat from the core of the animals body (its heart and lungs) to its periphery via specially designed networks of blood vessels. Shivering, which youve probably done some of yourself, is easiest to explain: this crude process generates heat by the rapid contraction and shaking of muscles.Ã If An Animal Gets Too Warm What if an animal is too warm, rather than too cold? In temperate and tropical climates, excess body heat can accumulate quickly and cause life-threatening problems. One of natures solutions is to place blood circulation very near the surface of the skin, which helps to release heat into the environment. Another is the moisture produced by sweat glands or respiratory surfaces, which evaporates in comparatively dryer air and cools the animal down. Unfortunately, evaporative cooling is less effective in dry climates, where water is rare and water loss can be a real problem. In such situations, mammals, like reptiles, often seek protection from the sun during the hotter daylight hours and resume their activity at night. The evolution of warm-blooded metabolisms in mammals wasnt a straightforward affair, as witness the fact that many dinosaurs were apparently warm-blooded, some contemporary mammals (including a species of goat) actually have something akin to cold-blooded metabolisms, and even one type of fish generates its own internal body heat.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The petit Togolese woman towers over me as I recline in the chair. Her hands hastily swivel down the hair. She has been plaiting my hair since the morning. The style I requested, large bulky waist length braids, is time consuming. The braids rest heavy on my shoulders now. To keep us entertained, she keeps the television on. Program after program cycle each other. I slip in and out of sleep to catch the first few minutes of each segment and to check on the progress of my hair. The television advertises that the Rachael Ray show would be premiering next. All of a sudden Rachael announces that the color of the year is orchid? Orchid? Who decides what the Ã¢â¬Å"color of the yearÃ¢â¬ will be? How do these people decide this color? When do they come up with this decision? Why do they need to come up with a color that millions of Americans must follow to Ã¢â¬Å"keep up with fashion?Ã¢â¬ Who decides what is fashionable? There are three women and two men that belong to the fashion com mittee. The women of this committee are chosen from each age bracket: eighteen to thirty, thirty to forty-five, and forty-five to sixty-five. The men are both of age thirty-five. These men and women meet quarterly to discuss what they believe should be in top fashion for the season. The woman in age bracket forty-five to sixty-five serves as the judge and has the most amount of influence and power to override the other four memberÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions. This committee generally cares about the fashion decisions they make
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Auditing issues of ABC Learning Centre. Answer: Introduction This report is regarding the introduction of new accounting standard ASA 701 Communicating Key Audit matters in the Independent Auditors Report and it clearly examines the case of ABC learning center and if amendment to the ASA 701 has been put forward then the financial fraud would have not been occurred and the stated company would not have collapsed. It also states about the new reporting requirements introduced in the ASA 701 and its implications in the industry due to which the way of financial and accounting misappropriation has resolved up to an extent. It also contains the linking of the ABC learning center case with the ASA 701, in which it contains about the matters occurred. The report clearly illustrates how the frauds in an organization has paved the way for introduction of new accounting standard and has led to various amendments in the existing standards. There are various loopholes in the law drafted and the reporting of the auditors was not accurate so to discontinue this practice and enhance globalization various efforts were taken to improve the reporting requirements. There were various issues raised in ABC learning Centre such as the accounting issues and debt and these issues occurred due to no proper disclosures by the auditor and the auditor gave an unqualified opinion for the same. A linkage study has been established between the stated company and the introduction and amendments in the auditing standard explaining the reasons of amendments and if the same was present the stated company would not have been collapsed. It also discussed about the successful implementation of the standard and the auditors are encouraged to meet the requirements and the investors and audit committee being engaged and supporting for the process illustrated above. Auditing issues in ABC Learning Centre The stated company is an Australian listed company which runs a business of childcare centers. The company expanded its business rapidly in other countries as well. It rapidly started acquiring small and medium sized centers across the country (Blythe, 2017). In a short span of time it made significant growth which led to increase in its stock prices to $8.60(Teen, 2012). Since it acquired bulk centers but was unable to sustain the growth for the long time. It paid excess value for centers than actual value affecting the growth. It took debts for acquiring the company and was unable to pay the same as it does not pick the pace of growth which was expected. The acquisitions made were criticized by economists all over the country. In no time the profits and share prices of the company fell down and thus lead to the liquidation. There were various issues of the failure of this company in which the significant one was fraudulent financial reporting (Sumsion, 2006). Major ethical issues i dentified were Unethical accounting practices followed. Auditors of the companys financial statement breached the code of ethics. For survival of the organization corporate governance principles should be followed, the same was breached by the company. ABC learning Centre has a remarkable financial fraud in its organization. Financial fraud is defined as cheating in financial transactions for its personal benefit. Since there was manipulation of financial statements it can be said as an accounting fraud in which it overstated the assets and revenues of the company superficially and underreporting its liabilities. It is also discovered that ABC has made considerable profits from subsidies it received from government in the form of tax rebates. It also earned profits from paying low wages to staff and cost cutting which was not a sustainable business model (Weaven and Grace, 2010). Controversies were made due to its acquisitions of child care centers which created monopoly in the market. It was also seen that it has used all his financial resources in regulations governing childcare and thus creating huge liability for the company. Auditors were unable to sign off its reports due to its huge debt obligations which were not paid even after selling off its assets (Brasel, Doxey, Grenier and Reffett, 2016). And after this incident the company was delisted from stock exchange and creditors for winding up of the company and the same was taken over by Goodstart, a consortium of mission Australia. The issues in collapse of ABC learning center were: Accounting issues It led to acquisitions of various childcare Centres which were paid more than there acquisition values resulting in creation of intangible asset called as goodwill. But when the company is running below profits the intangible assets becomes worthless and this was what happened with learning Centre. Profits of ABC increased extremely with acquisitions but out of those profits seventy percent was intangible assets which would have been questioned, since the inherent risk associated with the same was enormous. The external auditors of ABC learning Centre namely Pitcher Partners gave unqualified opinion on the above stated issue. Whereas later on Earnest Young provided a different view on the matter. Therefore after this incident took place lot of corporate scandals was identified in which the report of auditors provided unqualified opinion. Debt - The acquisitions were done after taking debt from financial institutions, but the company was unable to pay the same so it reclassifies its debt as non-current liabilities from current- liabilities. But in the end of year 2008 its profit fell down by forty two percent and thus company tried to renegotiate the loan but the same was rejected by banks (Teen, 2012). Breach of debt has led to drastic effect. Operating cash flow- The operating cash flow was not sufficient to pay the suppliers, vendors, salaries and dividends even though their profits were increasing. The directors of ABC pledged their shares to pay the dues and due to which market flooded with shares and thrashed the share price (Hems, 2015). ABC s failure was not due to lack of competition but was due to wrong business practices and high level of debt and acquisitions as per the representation made by Australian competition and consumer commission (ACCC). Reasons for developing ASA 701 A new auditing standard namely ASA 701 Communicating Key Audit matters in the Independent Auditors Report deals with auditors responsibilities in reporting of key audit matters is introduced. It is reportative standard which provides form and content of communication to enhance the readability of intended users of financial statements. The report is formed on the basis of auditors professional judgement and on the same basis significant areas are defined which requires clear attention of management and in some cases those charged with governance. But disclosing such matters in audit report is not a substitute of various disclosures required by management to make in financial statements and the reporting requirements under ASA 570 and modified opinion required to provide under ASA 705. ASA 570 is been replaced from Going concern assumption to going concern basis of accounting and this standard continues to report on an exception basis (Penn, 2011). This standard is applied only when auditor is required to communicate key audit matters as per any law or regulation or is a requirement for listed entities in which auditor audits general purpose financial reports. It was amended by International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) due to various below mentioned reasons. The changes in ASA 701 has definitely lead audit procedure more time consuming and costly but at the same time it is important to understand the need for such changes , if these changes would not have introduces same scandals would have taken place. After the insertion of new requirements it is important for early discussions of matters with client and auditors for fulfilling the new reporting requirements relating to financial statements disclosures and identification of appropriate and potential KAM (Reid, Carcello, Li and Neal, 2015). New ASA 701 has paved a way for disclosure of Key audit matters for all listed entities, depending upon the nature and complexity of organizations. Those matters on which auditors opinion is significant shall be disclosed (Sirois, Bedard and Bera, 2016). These matters may include significant risk areas, uncertainty of estimate done by management in preparation of financial statements and significant events affecting the current period. Out of these matters the most significant shall be included in report and thus called as key audit matters (Cordos, and Fulopa, 2015). Material uncertainty which was earlier disclosed in the financial statements was disclosed as emphasis of matter paragraph in audit report but the same in the amended and shall be included in a different Head as Material Uncertainty Related to Going Conern. As per the amendment there are some changes in the location of paragraphs and there is no requirement of placing other matters paragraphs and auditors opinion to be placed first in the auditors report and opinion paragraphs (Auditing and assurance standard board, 2017). Management responsibilities and its reporting are increased as per the new standard applicable. Management is required to disclose matters relating to going concern and further requirement of superintending financial reporting process by those charged with governance (Logan, Press and Sumsion, 2012). The auditor is now supposed to make a positive statements relating to independence from the entity and that he is fulfilling the ethical requirements required for conducting audit and fulfilling other requirements relating to ethics (Gimbar, Hansen and Ozlanski, 2015). Important enhancement is required after amendment that auditor is required to report when the event and conditions cast significant doubt on the entity going concern principle even if no material uncertainty exists at that time (Carson, Fargher and Zhang, 2016). However it can be said that a lot reporting requirements have been enhanced in the new ASA 701, thus the auditors are required to be keener and updated about the audit conducted. Auditors are required to follow these requirements with effect from financial reporting period commencing on or after 1 January 2016. Matters to be disclosed in auditor report of ABC Learning Centre The collapse of ABC learning Centre would not have been held if there were proper disclosures by the auditors in the financial statements. Since at that time there was no such awareness which led to the scandal and accounting frauds. ASA 570 is being amended with the requirement that the auditor has to consider going concern accounting and even if no material uncertainty occurs still if it casts in the mind of auditor that the assumption is not adhered with he has to report over the same. If this requirement was before ABC learning Centre auditors would have reported the same and it would have easily reflected the wrong practices done by the stated company. If the requirements of ASA 702 would have been introduced the reporting requirements would easily locate the discrepancies done by ABC learning Centre and its accounting fraud would have been easily figured out. A reduced disclosure regime was implemented by department of finance in order to reduce the workload and make financial statements easier to read. Key audit matters include the most common aspect of reporting that is the carrying value or impairment value of goodwill and intangibles (Brigden, 2009). If we refer to the case of stated company one of the most dangerous loopholes was the acquisition value of centers as it was acquired at extravagant prices which lead to excess goodwill but actual value was far lesser than what was quoted which lead to bookish profits but no real profits and this is how it lead to misstatements which resulted in fraud. KAMs also includes the details of various acquisitions made since the globalization and increasing consolidation has impact on the organization, so these are required to be included with proper disclosures which was totally missing in the case of stated company (Auditing and assurance standard board, 2015). It is very important to understand that revenue recognition plays key role in deciding the real profits of the entity. The case stated above clearly exp lains the fact that the revenue was wrongly stated and the readers were referring to that position of financial statements even if the same was audited by the auditors and auditors gave unqualified opinion (KPMG, 2015). The new standard has opened the door for giving more transparency and giving more insights about the audit. There are various features of key audit matters to meet various objectives such as fact based, concise and free from technicalities, tailored to the company and sufficient detailed to understand the matter addressed in the auditors report (Doxey et al, 2016). Conclusion The primary purpose of the financial statements is to provide entitys financial position and the auditors review the same to ensure that whether they show true and fair view or not. But due to some loopholes in the reporting requirements there were many violations and frauds occurred, due to this it paved the way to insertion and updation of the new accounting standard ASA 701. It can be concluded that ASA 701 reporting plays a very important role, it is regulatory standard through which accounting fraud can be controlled. A case of ABC learning Centre is taken as a base to explain the fraud which occurred in the organization. This report includes the critical factors newly introduced in ASA 701 through which various reporting requirements have taken place. The linkage study has been done to explain the fraud conducted in the organization and if there would be these reporting requirements and a change which has been made in ASA 570, how the fraud conducted would be controlled. A brie f understanding is being made of the case referred and the newly inserted ASA along with changes done in other reporting standards for understanding the reasons as to why such changes occurred and what led to such change. Thus to make disclosures less generalized and more meaningful it gave a global push to improve the usefulness of the financial reporting. References Auditing and assurance standard board, 2015, Auditing Standard ASA 701 Communicating Key Audit Matters in the Independent Auditors Report, retrieved on 29th august 2017 from https://www.auasb.gov.au/admin/file/content102/c3/ASA_701_2015.pdf Auditing and assurance standard board, 2015, Explanatory statement, retrieved on 29th august 2017 from https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2015L02016/Explanatory%20Statement/Text Blythe, S.G., 2017.Attention, balance and coordination: The ABC of learning success. John Wiley Sons. Brasel, K., Doxey, M.M., Grenier, J.H. and Reffett, A., 2016. Risk disclosure preceding negative outcomes: The effects of reporting critical audit matters on judgments of auditor liability.The Accounting Review,91(5), pp.1345-1362. Brigden, C., 2009. Unions and collective bargaining in 2008.Journal of Industrial Relations,51(3), pp.365-378. Carson, E., Fargher, N. and Zhang, Y., 2016. Trends in auditor reporting in Australia: A synthesis and opportunities for research. Australian Accounting Review, 26(3), pp.226-242. Cordos, G.S. and Fulopa, M.T., 2015. Understanding audit reporting changes: introduction of Key Audit Matters.Accounting and Management Information Systems,14(1), p.128. Doxey, M.M., Fuller, S.H., Geiger, M.A., Gist, W.E., Hackenbrack, K.E., Janvrin, D.J., Pitman, M.K. and Roush, P.B., 2016. Comments by the Auditing Standards Committee of the Auditing Section of the American Accounting Association on PCAOB Release No. 2016-003, Proposed Auditing StandardThe Auditor's Report on an Audit of Financial Statements when the Auditor Expresses an Unqualified Opinion and Related Amendments to PCAOB Standards.Current Issues in Auditing,11(1), pp.C26-C40. Gimbar, C., Hansen, B. and Ozlanski, M.E., 2015. Early Evidence on the Effects of Critical Audit Matters on Auditor Liability.Current Issues in Auditing,10(1), pp.A24-A33. Hems, L., 2015. Situating Mutuals In The Australian Public Sector Context.Managing Under Austerity, Delivering Under Pressure, p.215. KPMG, 2015, Enhanced auditor reporting, retrieved on 29th august 2017 from https://home.kpmg.com/au/en/home/insights/2015/12/enhanced-auditor-reporting-december-2015.html Logan, H., Press, F. and Sumsion, J., 2012. The quality imperative: Tracing the rise of'quality'in Australian early childhood education and care policy.Australasian Journal of Early Childhood,37(3), p.4. Penn, H., 2011. Gambling on the market: The role of for-profit provision in early childhood education and care.Journal of Early Childhood Research,9(2), pp.150-161. Reid, L.C., Carcello, J.V., Li, C. and Neal, T.L., 2015. Are auditor and audit committee report changes useful to investors? Evidence from the United Kingdom. Sirois, L.P., Bdard, J. and Bera, P., 2016. The informational value of key audit matters in the auditors report: Evidence from an eye-tracking study. Sumsion, J., 2006. The corporatization of Australian childcare: Towards an ethical audit and research agenda.Journal of Early Childhood Research,4(2), pp.99-120. Teen, M, 2012, The ABC of a corporate collapse, Business Times, Governance for Stakeholders. Retrieved on 21 august 2017 from https://governanceforstakeholders.com/2012/12/28/the-abc-of-a-corporate-collapse/ Weaven, S. and Grace, D., 2010. Examining parental and staff perceptions of childcare service quality across competing business structures.Australasian Journal of Early Childhood,35(2), p.54.
Thursday, April 2, 2020
The Preparation Of Organic Compounds Aspirins And Oil Of Wintergreen Title of Experiment: The Preparation of Organic Compounds Aspirins and Oil of Wintergreen Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to prepare two organic compounds (aspirin and oil of wintergreen) and to illustrate the typical organic reactions. Students will also learn some techniques commonly used in organic synthesis and the meaning of the terms theoretical yield, actual yield, and percent yield. Both Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) are commonly used organic compounds. Aspirin is usually used as a pain reliever or fever reducer, and oil of wintergreen is used in rubbing liniments for sore muscles and as a flavoring agent. Aspirin is usually made by reacting salicylic acid with acetic anhydride. C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 C9H8O4 + C2H4O2 (salicylic acid) (acetic anhydride) (acetyl salicylic acid: aspirin) (acetic acid) Oil of wintergreen is made by reacting salicylic acid with methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid. C7H6O3 + CH4O C8H8O4 + H2O (salicylic acid) (methanol) (methyl salicylate: oil of wintergreen) (water) Procedure Preparation of Aspirin 1. Set up a water bath and an ice bath. 2. Put 3 grams of salicylic acid and 4mL of acetic anhydride in 125mL conical flask. 3. While swirling the flask, add 5 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid to the mixture. 4. Heat the flask in the beaker of boiling water for 15 minutes or until the solid dissolves. 5. Carefully remove the flask with 9 tongs from the water bath and add 25mL of your ice-cold water to the flask. 6. Set the flask in the ice bath until crystallization appears to be complete. 7. Separate the crystals from the liquid by suction filtration. 8. Rinse the product with ice water to transfer all of the solid aspirin onto the filter paper. 9. Draw air through the product for several minutes. 10. Transfer the solid from the funnel to a preweighed, labeled, dry paper towel, and allow it to dry thoroughly. 11. Make a tablet of aspirin by using a pellet press. Preparation of Oil of Wintergreen 1. Put about 0.2 grams of salicylic acid and 2mL of methanol in a medium sized test tube and swirl until the solid dissolves. 2. Add 5 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid. 3. Place the test tube in a hot water bath at 60 - 70?C for 15 minutes. 4. Remove the test tube from the hot water bath and let it cool to room temperature. 5. Cautiously smell the contents of the test tube. Science Essays
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Comparing and Contrasting Rommel and Patton essays Many heroes rose to the top during the era of World War II, two such heroes waged an epic battle both directly and indirectly against each other during this time frame. These two soldiers were considered by many to be the best of the best for each side of the struggle; one the son of an ordinary Protestant man with no military history, the other the next in the line of a lineage of great war heroes. Though they came from different backgrounds, nationalities, families, and schooling, George S. Patton Jr. and Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel Jr. are in many ways both different and yet at the same time alike. The following pages will examine the life, views, and military history of German Field Marshall Erwin Rommel and Four-star general George S. Patton Jr. First, the pre-war lives and background of these two men will be dissected. Next, the World War I contributions and exploits of Rommel and Patton will be compared and contrasted. Finally, evidence will be given as to why the names of these two men will forever go down in the military history books for their contributions during the trying times of World War II. Born on November 15th, 1891, in the town of Heidenheim, Germany, Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel Jr. was born into a family of five children whose military history was a barren river bed. Rommels father was a Protestant school teacher, as was his father; his mother was the daughter of a high ranking senior government official. In fact a young Erwin had aspirations of attending to study engineering so he could one day design and create new innovations to help bring Germany into a new age. Little did he know he would one day be one of the key creators of the storied Nazi military machine of the Third Reich. But Erwin Sr. was insistent that his son attend cadet school to prepare for service in the German Army; so in 1920 Rommel put his dreams of becoming an engineer on hold and enlisted in the army, much to the satisfaction of h...
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Assignment 3 - Essay Example My dad and mum have asked me so many questions even from the morning. But I have not replied to any of the questions. They asked me what happened to me and my silence provoked them a lot and they kept repeating the same question. Mum and dad have concluded that I have some problems which might be psychological and need medical assistance and they decided to seek the advice of a psychologist in the evening as both of them need to attend their professional duties during their day time. They asked me to stay in the home till they arrive in the evening. But I decided to go to my college to study the responses of my teacher and my colleagues. On my way to class, so many people wished me with Hello, Hi. But I have not responded to anyone. Those who wished me have looked suspiciously at me and uttered certain words and gone. But one of my closest friends has came close to me and asked me what happened. But I have not responded. He has pat me on my shoulders and asked me even louder; Ã¢â¬Å"what happened to you? I have not responded and entered the class amidst the irritating comments of my colleagues. When the lecture was going on, my friends started to look at me occasionally to watch my actions. The teacher has noticed that something rather unusual has happened in the class after observing the behaviors of my friends and he enquired about it. One of my friends replied that something drastically wrong has happened to me. The teacher has asked me what happened to me. But I continued my silence amidst of some strange noises produced by my classmates. The teacher asked others to calm down and he has continued his class. After the classes, I returned home and continued my silence till my dad and mum arrived. They came back in the evening and asked me to get ready to have a consultation with a psychologist. They were so much anxious about my condition and started to make their own judgments for my peculiar behavior. I could not control my emotions for so long and